Subject: Physics and Natural Sciences
Topic: Two-dimensional materials (Graphene, Transitionmetal di-chalcogenites,…)
Language: English (U.S.)
Pages: 3
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Two-dimensional Materials




           Two-dimensional Materials

           Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been accredited with various properties essential to diverse engineering and scientific purposes. For instance, these materials have fascinating chemical, optical, thermal and electrical properties. Due to these reasons, there has been growing interest in these materials. This paper considers some of the known aspects of 2D materials and also areas of information not known with primary concern on graphene and also dichalcogenide.

Two-dimension materials are crystal clear materials made up of single layers of atoms. These materials are also referred to as 2D allotropes made up of several elements or compounds. Xu, Shi and Chen (2013) argued that some of these 2D elements are Graphene and Transition metal dichalcogenide. Graphene is a carbon allotrope categorized as a two-dimensionally arranged element. Besides, it is commonly referred to a monolayer item. It exhibits crystalline structures of layered atoms. Other features displayed by graphite are such as it is very stiff, light and tensile. It has been best applied in the commercial production of conductors, water treatment among other uses. The allotrope’s van der Waals structures makes it efficient for it conduction of electricity. Also, the van der Waal forces form heterostructures that constitute the shape of the allotrope. Graphene forms lattice structures of carbon atoms that are almost transparent.

Transition metal dichalcogenide is one of the two dimension material which is single layered and is atomically known to be thin quasi-conductors. It has MX2  as its chemical formula where M is the transition metal, and X is referred to as the chalcogen atom. Single layers of the M molecules are put in between double layers of the X molecules. The transition metal dichalcogenide has a high mass of crystals that are organized of single layers where Van-der-Waals forces of attraction hold these layers to each other.

2D materials have various unique properties known. For instance, Xia et al. (2014) highlight that surfaces of 2D materials are passivated naturally without dangling bonds. Such property makes it easy to integrate these materials into photonic structures. The weak van der Waals forces between these materials also enable construction of vertical heterostructures without the conventional lattice mismatch. It was also established that 2D materials interact with light strongly.

Graphene has the best conductivity known so far and has excellent stability under various stressors. Consequently, research has been done to increase the efficiency of this allotrope. For example, compounds of Graphene have been used to manufacture chips like flash memories, which are of imperative use with the changing technology.

Graphene lacks band gap, which is the major limitation, related whereby band gap is useful in the production of Nano- electronic machines (Butler, Gupta & Gutiérrez, 2013). Band gap formation within Graphene elements calls for electron mobility as compared with silicon strips. TMDC single layers such as WS2 have a direct band gap which means that means that when the impulse of the particles and dumps is similar to both the conduction and valence band; the electron has the possibility to give out a photon directly hence a direct band gap.

Graphene is used in various disciplines such as biological engineering. For instance, Graphene is used in the production of bioelectric sensory devices with high specificity to examine hypo or hyperglycemic levels in the body. It is also prospected to be used in cancer diagnosis and treatment through DNA sequencing  (Castellanos-Gomez, Buscema & Molenaar, 2014). Considering its optical properties, Graphene stands a higher chance of production of touch screens for smartphones, LCD for desktops and television. Following Graphene’s tensile and flexibility, it becomes easy to manufacture mobile optical devices.

Graphene being a mono-atom thick and single layered is applicable in ultrafiltration such as in water treatment and crude oil filtration. Moreover, there are efforts to improve lithium batteries with Graphene (Xia, Wang & Xiao, 2014).

The discussion above highlights some of the known information regarding 2D materials with significant interest on Graphene. Graphene Band gap creation remains anonymous and can influence mobility within the allotrope. Calculation of Graphene concentration is also not stipulated clearly

while its health risks are unknown. Moreover, Butler (2013) observed that information regarding the differences between few or single and bulk layers are not yet understood. It would be essential to characterize differences in single layer's many-body interactions such as in excitonic, high doping influence and phonon transport. Allain, Kang, Banerjee and Kis (2015) further state that there is limited knowledge pertaining materials specific properties of these materials such as the effect of atomic defects and constituent elements of electrical properties. Information on spintronics in semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is also limited.


Allain, A., Kang, J., Banerjee, K., & Kis, A. (2015). Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors. Nature Materials14(12), 1195-1205.

Butler, S. Z., Hollen, S. M., Cao, L., Cui, Y., Gupta, J. A., Gutiérrez, H. R., ... & Johnston-Halperin, E. (2013). Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. ACS nano7(4), 2898-2926.

Castellanos-Gomez, A., Buscema, M., Molenaar, R., Singh, V., Janssen, L., van der Zant, H. S., & Steele, G. A. (2014). Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping. 2D Materials, 1(1), 011002.

Xia, F., Wang, H., Xiao, D., Dubey, M., & Ramasubramaniam, A. (2014). Two-dimensional material nanophotonics. Nature Photonics, 8(12), 899-907.

Xia, F., Wang, H., Xiao, D., Dubey, M., & Ramasubramaniam, A. (2014). Two-dimensional material nanophotonics. Nature Photonics8(12), 899-907.

Xu, M., Liang, T., Shi, M., & Chen, H. (2013). Graphene-like two-dimensional materials. Chemical reviews, 113(5), 3766-3798.